Estonia »

Estonia at a Glance

Official name: Republic of Estonia

Short form: Estonia

National Day: Independence Day, February 24 (1918)

Estonia became a NATO member state on 29 March 2004.

Estonia became a European Union member state on
1 May 2004.


Area: 45 227 km²

Border: Total length: 1450.2 km, with a sea border of 768.6 km and a land border of 681.6 km

Distances from Tallinn to:
- Helsinki 85 km;
- Riga 310 km;
- St. Petersburg 350 km;
- Stockholm 375 km.

Climate: humid-temperate

Number of islands: 1521. Largest islands are Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Muhu

Estonia is a green land, forests cover 55% of the country.

Estonia is a country of thousand of lakes, largest of these are Lake Peipsi and Lake Võrtsjärv.

Highest point: Suur Munamägi (Great Egg Hill), 318 m.

Temperature range (average daytime): -2,0°C in winter (may sink to -20°C, usually in February) and +19.4°C in summer (may rise to +30°C, usually in July).


Population: 1.316 million (Source: Population Register)

Population density: 31 inhabitants per square km

The proportion of urban population: 70% (2013)

The proportion of rural population: 30% (2013)

The birth rate in 2013 was 10.3 per 1000 residents while the mortality rate reached 11.6 per 1000 residents.

Largest ethnic groups (2013): Estonians (69%), Russians (25%), Ukrainians (1,8%), Belarussians (1%) and Finns (0,6%)

Main Cities

The capital of Estonia is Tallinn (432 thousand inhabitants or 32.8% of total population).

Other large cities and population:
Tartu – 97 600
Narva – 58 663
Kohtla-Järve – 37 201
Pärnu – 41 528


From 1 January 2011 Estonia is member of euro zone and the currency in Estonia is euro.

Tax system

21% flat income tax, reinvested corporate profit is tax free; 20% VAT


The official language is Estonian, which belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family and is closely related to Finnish. Along with Finnish, English, Russian and German are also widely spoken and understood.


Compulsory school attendance in Estonia begins at the age of 7 and lasts until completion of basic education,  which covers the grades 1-9 or up to the age of 17. Basic education is funded by the state budget and the local government.

The principal objective of Estonia's educational system is to develop Estonian society into an open learning society, where every person is a lifelong learner.


Since the Reformation movement in the 16th century, the Lutheran church has played the leading role in Estonia. Other larger active confessions are Russian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist and Roman Catholic.


© Estonian Embassy in Minsk Platonova 1B, Minsk, Belarus tel. (375 17) 217 7061, e-mail: (visas)